Greek Readers

I have added a Readers page that can be accessed through the Learn Greek page at either or The new page provides downloadable copies of a number of readers designed to supplement ones study of Ancient Greek.

I have found far more of these for Classical Greek than Hellenistic Greek. If you are aware of any good Hellenistic (Koine) readers that are available for download, please let me know and I will add them. You can contact me through the Contact page.

Lesson 23 imageThe domain name has until yesterday pointed to the online grammar that has for several years been housed at (and, more recently, at Now, however, I have moved the content of those directories so that all of the grammar materials are housed directly at That way, the grammar materials only need to be updated in a single location. and now both redirect to rather than the other way around. Unfortunately, that means that if you have bookmarked any of the lessons, you will need to update your bookmarks. I apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.

For a few days, may show up in your browser as insecure. But that problem will resolve itself in a few days when the domain name registration is finished migrating to a new provider. Since there are no transactions to be completed on the site anyway, it will not be a problem.

Color Scheme Change

While the content of and remains identical, the color scheme is now different.

Header Menu Footer

Header Menu Footer

Feel free to let me know which one you prefer. You can use the Contact page for this purpose.

HTTPS and free online Greek resources: The Dictionaries Page

I have updated the Dictionaries page to make clear which resources linked there are running on secure servers and which are not. Since the implementation of HTTPS everywhere, Chrome and some other browsers are flagging sites as insecure when they are not running under that standard. Any page that links to them is also classified as insecure. This impacts what I am doing at and To solve this problem, I have temporarily disabled links to sites running on insecure servers, but kept the link text so that you can paste it into your browser’s location bar if you are willing to take the very minor risk it presents.

Links to insecure pages are shown in dark red and do not do anything when you click on them.

If want to visit the linked page, you will need to copy the link and paste it into the location bar at the top of your browser window.

Updates to and and are now fully identical, and both have a cheery new look. I’ve also put a great deal of time in over the past few days to enhancing the security of the sites. I hope you enjoy the changes.

New look at and (12/20/2017)

Note added December 29, 2017: I may from time to time vary the aesthetics of the site depending on which URL is used to access it, but the content will remain identical. and

The domain name, which for some time now has worked as an alias for, will be out of service for a few days as we make the move to a more secure web server. I will be using the name to set up the new server and test the site to ensure that everything works well before everything goes live there.

You should not experience any disruption of service as long as you use the address If you try to go to, you may notice glitches or the site may refuse to load. Just be patient. We will get there!

Alan Bunning's Textual Criticism Resources

cntriconforhamepageI’ve updated the homepage to give more prominent placement to Alan Bunning’s Center for New Testament Restoration (CNTR). The transcriptions of New Testament manuscripts he has provided are amazing. Having these available in machine-actionable form is an incredible boon to the work of textual criticism!

I linked the image on the homepage directly to the manuscripts page at CNTR rather than the project homepage to give quick access to the carefully aligned transcriptions. Once you get there, though, the menu at the top of the page gives you quick access to the project’s homepage and other resources to help you understand the transcriptions and the process used to produce them.

We all owe sincere thanks to Alan for his careful and thorough work.

Epigraphy Page

Ancient Greek resources on the internet are in a constant state of change, with pages moving to new locations and new tools being added from time to time. Over the past few days I have updated the epigraphy page to correct links, update descriptions, and hopefully make the page more useful. Check it out to see what you think.

CNTRIt is with great delight that I can now announce the launch of an updated version of The Center for New Testament Restoration with hosting support through

We all owe a great debt of gratitude to Alan Bunning for making his resources freely available online. I am proud to be able to support his work by giving those materials a home here at While it is possible to access Alan’s materials at that address, though, to avoid confusion, I recommend that you bookmark them at his new domain name: You will see exactly the same resources at both addresses.

The Center for New Testament Restoration provides a wealth of data on manuscript readings in a very user-friendly format. If you are interested in textual criticism and have not yet discovered this resource, you should take the time to get to know it.

Here’s what Alan had to say in his announcement earlier today:

Announcing that the Center for New Testament Restoration (CNTR) website has been updated with several significant improvements. The most notable being the move from the unreliable free web hosting services I have been using, to a more permanent home at Please update your links accordingly. Many thanks to Micheal Palmer for providing services to host this website under his domain.

As has been eagerly awaited for some time, all CNTR transcriptions have now been released in the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) XML format for free download under a Creative Commons license. Realize that these transcriptions are still a work in progress, so derivative works will not be allowed until later when more of the bugs have been worked out of the system.

Besides this, there have also been many other bug fixes and improvements in the manuscript transcriptions which are listed under the News tab. In particular, the position of the words in the collation has significantly improved due to a new and improved alignment algorithm.

Let me know if you see any errors or can suggest any improvements. Feedback is welcome as I look to improve this valuable resource and make the constructs of the New Testament free and accessible to all.


Inheritance and Inflectional Morphology

LeBlanc, Inheritance and Inflectional MorphologyIn Inheritance and Inflectional Morphology MaryEllen A. LeBlanc addresses inflectional morphology in four languages: Old High German, Latin, Early New High German, and Koine Greek. The section on Koine Greek comes in the sixth chapter (of eight). This is volume 94 of Peter Lang’s “Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics.”

The book is an updated version of LeBlanc’s doctoral dissertation submitted at the University of California Berkeley in the Spring of 2014.

Here’s the abstract from Peter Lang:

Inheritance, which has its origins in the field of artificial intelligence, is a framework focusing on shared properties. When applied to inflectional morphology, it enables useful generalizations within and across paradigms. The inheritance tree format serves as an alternative to traditional paradigms and provides a visual representation of the structure of the language’s morphology. This mapping also enables cross-linguistic morphological comparison.
In this book, the nominal inflectional morphology of Old High German, Latin, Early New High German, and Koine Greek are analyzed using inheritance trees. Morphological data is drawn from parallel texts in each language; the trees may be used as a translation aid to readers of the source texts as an accompaniment to or substitute for traditional paradigms. The trees shed light on the structural similarities and differences among the four languages.

The dissertation is available in two different places online:

I’ve added the book to the online bibliography.