HTTPS rather than HTTP at

Raphael: Philosophers

I have added a few lines of behind-the-scenes code to the online grammar ( to force all pages to load securely (https rather than http). The site has been available on a secure server for some time now, but with these changes it will be impossible to load any pages insecurely.

The same encoding applies to as well since that URL now redirects to

I hope you enjoy the added security.

Ancient Greek Linguistics: New Approaches, Insights, Perspectives

Felicia Logozzo and Paolo Poccetti have edited an impressive compilation of linguistic research on Ancient Greek. All but one of the chapters address either Classical or Homeric Greek, but one, a brief note on  synthetic forms of the future in Hellenistic Greek, addresses the time period of our focus here.

  • Liana Tronci, “Forme sintetiche del futuro nel greco ellenistico, Brevi note sulla Settanta”

Have any of you seen this book? Tronci’s article is written in Italian, but many of the other articles are in English. Do we have any Italian speakers who would be willing to read Tronci’s article and comment on it?

HTTPS and free online Greek resources: The Dictionaries Page

I have updated the Dictionaries page to make clear which resources linked there are running on secure servers and which are not. Since the implementation of HTTPS everywhere, Chrome and some other browsers are flagging sites as insecure when they are not running under that standard. Any page that links to them is also classified as insecure. This impacts what I am doing at and To solve this problem, I have temporarily disabled links to sites running on insecure servers, but kept the link text so that you can paste it into your browser’s location bar if you are willing to take the very minor risk it presents.

Links to insecure pages are shown in dark red and do not do anything when you click on them.

If want to visit the linked page, you will need to copy the link and paste it into the location bar at the top of your browser window.

Paul Nitz’ review of M. Diaz Avila’s Alexandros.

In volume 8, issue 1 of Teaching Classical Languages, Paul Nitz has written a very helpful review of M. Díaz Avila’s Alexandros, Nitz considers the possible suitability of Avila’s book for a text-based introduction to Ancient Greek using a Communicative Model. The review is well worth reading.

Because Avila’s book, based on the earlier work of W.H.D. Rouse (1909), is a clear example of Applied Linguistics (use of a linguistically informed, research-based model to support language acquisition), I am adding the review to the Comprehensive Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics.

Thank you, Paul!

Καλά Χριστούγεννα 2017

I wish you all a wonderful Christmas.

Here is how the Greek Phrase for “Merry Christmas” would have sounded between the time of Jesus’ birth and about 250 CE. It is doubtful that anyone actually uttered this greeting in the first century after Jesus was born, but if they had, here’s how it would have sounded!

I’ve provided the recording in three popular formats so that you can hear it even if you are using an outdated browser. At least one of the formats should work for you.

Three versions of the recording




Why is it likely no one used this saying before 100CE? Well, we just have no evidence that Christmas was celebrated at all before that date. The invention of the holiday came a bit later. Still, feel free to use the greeting now that we do celebrate Christmas!

A note on spelling
There is one small difference in spelling of the Christmas greeting between 300 CE and the present: the system of written accents has been simplified. Contrast the following spellings. Can you see the difference?
Modern: Καλά Χριστούγεννα
Hellenistic: Καλὰ Χριστούγεννα


Updates to and and are now fully identical, and both have a cheery new look. I’ve also put a great deal of time in over the past few days to enhancing the security of the sites. I hope you enjoy the changes.

New look at and (12/20/2017)

Note added December 29, 2017: I may from time to time vary the aesthetics of the site depending on which URL is used to access it, but the content will remain identical.

Changes in complement structure from Classical to Byzantine Greek

Journal of Greek Linguistics

In the first issue of the Journal of Greek Linguistics this year (2017), Klaas Bentein examined changes in the way verbal complements were formed between the Classical and Byzantine periods. Here’s what the abstract of his paper says:

While Classical Greek has a particularly rich complementation system, in later times there is a tendency towards the use of finite complementation. In this context, Cristofaro (1996) has claimed that the Classical opposition whereby the accusative and infinitive is used for non-factive complements, and ὅτι with the indicative and the accusative and participle for factive ones, is disappearing, ὅτι being used as a ‘generic’ complementiser. In this article, I investigate to what extent Cristofaro’s (1996) claim of the pragmatic neutralisation of complementation patterns can be upheld, and whether it could be claimed that a new pragmatic opposition, in terms of ‘register’, is being established. For this purpose, I turn towards documentary papyri, a corpus which is particularly fruitful for socio-historical investigations.

You can read this paper here. I have added it to the Comprehensive Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics.

A Computational study on preverbal and postverbal accusative object nouns and pronouns in Ancient Greek

I have added Giuseppe Celano’s 2014 paper, “A Computational study on preverbal and postverbal accusative object nouns and pronouns in Ancient Greek,” (The Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics, no. 101, April 2014, pp. 97–110) to the Comprehensive Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics.

Drawing on data from Homer to the New Testament, Celano argues for a gradual shift from OV to VO constituent order. You can view or download a pdf copy here.

Christopher Fresch’s Dissertation

Tyndale Bulletin has published the abstract of Christopher Fresch’s dissertation, “Discourse Markers in the Septuagint and Early Koine Greek with Special Reference to The Twelve.” Christopher has also uploaded a copy of the abstract to

Since Dr. Fresch’s dissertation clearly meets the criteria for inclusion in “A Comprehensive Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics” I have added it there.