Another Hellenistic Greek voice reading Mark 2

As I did after posting the video of Mark 1, I am following the video of Mark 2 by posting a different voice reading the same text in Hellenistic Greek. This one displays only the text. The font is quite large, making the text easy to follow as you listen or read along!

I think the reader is François Evangelista, but I have not confirmed this yet. In any case, it’s an excellent reading.

Mark 2 is now available

Mark 2 in Koine (Hellenisitc) Greek

While you can view the video here, please visit to thank Benjamin Kantor for the work he is putting into providing the Hellenistic Greek voice for these videos!

Another great reading of Mark 1 with Reconstructed Koine pronunciation

Papyrus B1, recto, Mark 1
Mark 1, Papyrus B1

After watching the video in my previous post, I encourage you to watch this one, where there’s no acting, but a video of the text (using the SBLGNT) and great audio.

The font is very large, making it easy to follow along if your reading level is up to it.

You will notice one key difference from the pronunciation in the previous post. This one honors the breathing marks (῾ and ᾽). It is highly unlikely that a first century commoner would have done that, but there is good evidence that the practice was maintained by some, especially the more highly educated, well into the Hellenistic period.

I recommend doing so in class to guide learners more naturally to the correct spelling of words beginning with a vowel. Still, those who do not observe these marks have the weight of history on their side. Clearly they were on their way out in everyday speech if not completely gone already.

The Gospel of Mark in Koine Greek with Video Support

A few days ago (June 14, 2019), Mike Aubrey at announced a new film project promoted at (a different site with a confusingly similar URL). Benjamin Kantor has provided narration for the film using the Greek text of Mark’s Gospel with Reconstructed Koine pronunciation. It is a phenomenal feat. The film itself was produced by the LUMO Project in conjunction with Faith Comes by Hearing.

What sets this new collaboration apart? The text is read in very well done Reconstructed Koine pronunciation. The visuals help give context to what is being read, assisting with comprehension. This is a fabulous resource for those learning Hellenistic Greek! You can watch and hear chapter 1 below. Chapter 2 debuts later this week.

Oh… Did I mention there are subtitles? Read along with the video to improve your reading speed.

Updates at

I spent much of the day today updating the code behind Much of my time was spent solving a problem with the margins (or lack thereof) for major sections of each lesson. The reading experience should be significantly less annoying now!

This image shows a screenshot of lesson 9 of the online grammar.

Every lesson at now contains social media sharing capability. You can even share the table of contents if you feel like it.

I greatly appreciate those of you who have already shared the lessons with your friends and acquaintances. Now it will be much easier to do so.

I am currently conducting research on the middle voice future forms. As soon as that work is completed, I will post lesson 24.


More additions to the bibliography

I have added four articles from Felicia Logozzo and Paolo Poccetti’s volume on Ancient Greek Linguists to the Bibliography at and All but one of these deals with Classical Greek, but represent work that needs to be done on Hellenistic (Koine) Greek as well. The one exception is written in Italian. It deals with changes in the form of the Greek Future that began to take place in the Hellenistic Period and uses data from the Septuagint.

  • Martínez, Rafael and Yamuza, Emilia Ruiz. “Word order, adverb’s scope and focus.” In Felicia Logozzo, Paolo Poccetti (Eds.), Ancient Greek Linguistics: New Approaches, Insights, Perspectives 581–596 Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017.

You can read an abstract of Martínez and Yamuza’s work here. The authors draw their examples from Thucydides, Xenophon, and Polybius. 

  • De la Villa, Jesús. “Verbal alternations in Ancient Greek as an interface between lexicon and syntax.” In Felicia Logozzo and Paolo Poccetti (Eds.), Ancient Greek Linguistics: New Approaches, Insights, Perspectives. 535–550. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017

You can read the abstract of this article here.

  • Crespo, Emilio. “Focus adverbs in Classical Greek.” In Felicia Logozzo and Paolo Poccetti (Eds.). Ancient Greek Linguistics: New Approaches, Insights, Perspectives. 133–154. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017

Treats Classical Greek. You can read the abstract  here.

  • Tronci, Liana. “Forme sintetiche del futuro nel greco ellenistico. Brevi note sulla Settanta.” In Felicia Logozzo and Paolo Poccetti (Eds.), Ancient Greek Linguistics: New Approaches, Insights, Perspectives 383–396. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017

You can read the abstract here.

Kαλὰ Χριστούγεννα

With Christmas only a few days away, it’s time to say

καλά χριστούγεννα

That’s Merry Christmas as it would have sounded if someone had said it at the time of Jesus’ birth. No one actually did, though, because Christmas was not celebrated yet. Still, you might use this greeting to remind someone you care about that Christmas began as a celebration of the birth of Jesus, a Palestinian Jew, roughly 2000 years ago when English did not even exist yet.

Additions to A Comprehensive Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics

Today I added three items to the bibliography at and

  • Willi, Andreas, Origins of the Greek Verb, Cambridge University Press, 2018.
  • Danove, Paul, “The Conceptualization of Communication in the New Testament: A Feature Description”, Biblical and Ancient Greek Linguistics 7 (2018) 7–29.
  • Wishart, Ryder, “Monosemy: A Theoretical Sketch for Biblical Studies,” 7 (2018) 107–39.

If you would like to recommend items for the bibliography, you can do so here.

Updated Lexicography Page

I spent some time today updating the look and functioning of the Lexicography: Dictionaries & Lexica page at and I hope you find the organization easier to follow.

I added an explanation of why some recommended resources do not have active links. Google downgrades pages on secure servers that link to pages on insecure services. This may also be true of other search engines, but I do not have direct confirmation from them.,, and all run on secure servers.

If you are aware of other lexical resources that you think should be discussed on these pages, please do not hesitate to mention them as a comment on this post.